Ancillary Texts Draft 3/4:

The digipak:

DIGIPAK draft 8 (maybe final) copy

For my fourth draft of my digipak I have decided after a self assessment to change the style of the front cover and the back cover. This is because of the range of comments from my focus groups saying about their uncertainty of the genre of music as well as feeling a sense of agreement with the comments. Therefore, I decided to give more of an urban feel to the front and back cover by using one of my photographs I had taken of a typical building in London. This is then seen as conforming to conventions of the contemporary R&B genre of music with the audience having the expectation of an urban setting relating to where the artists are from.

In addition, I had also decided to add more edit effects in terms of adjusting the colour balance by making the background have a sepia effect. This emphasises the urban style of the outside of the digipak, for both the front and back cover.

The magazine advert:

Draft 3:                                         Draft 4:

I had decided to completely change the layout of the magazine advert for the album release because I felt that after receiving comments for how the genre of music is not clear in my focus sessions, I wanted to change this. But since, I changed the design of the front and back cover of the digipak, it also meant that I would have to change the advert. As I originally wanted to conform to conventions by having the album cover as the main image on the advert. So since I had changed this, I would have to include the new digipak cover, but an enlarged version.

The most important change from draft 3 to draft 4 was how I made up my mind to not use the colour scheme of purple. Instead I wanted to give an urban feel to reflect the typical R&B genre of music , with a dusty brown wall.

In addition, I included a new convention which isn’t as typically conformed by the adverts I had looked at, but some did have a small feature of the album cover with the disc almost looking like it is coming out of it. This is primarily to promote the album to the audience/readers as they are given an insight to what exactly the album looks like if they were to buy it. However, I had noticed that this has in fact causde the layout of the advert to become much more compact, as if there is too much information and pictures on the page. As a result, I had to adjust the size of the typography text for the description.

The transition from ancillary draft 1 to ancillary draft 2:

Recently, I held a short focus group to receive feedback for my first drafts of both ancillary texts- the magazine advert and the six panel digipack.

When producing the first draft for ancillary text 1, the magazine advert, I hadn’t entirely made a plan for the tracklisting of the album. This meant that I wouldn’t be able to conform to one of the main conventions of using persuasive language about particular featuring songs on the album that is being promoted. So I personally knew that I had to decide on track names to then be able to conform to this convention.

Magazine advert

Plus, according to a few comments in the focus group, it was significant to consider the their perceptions such as:

“I am slightly unsure if it’s an advert or poster.”

“I think it doesn’t really look like a magazine advert”

“I’d expect this is a poster, not a magazine advert.”

Furthermore, it is suggested that I haven’t conformed to magazine advert conventions; this is in fact unintentionally. So I have decided to do some additional research to gain a better understanding of the codes and conventions. Which I can now apply a change to my ancillary text 1 of changing the size of the icons of where the album can be purchased from. As these are meant to be the least prominent feature on the advert and by making it smaller, the icons will no longer seem to stand out as much. This had previously resulted in the audience’s attention being taken away from the central point of focus on the advert.

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Plus, I will make the social media accounts much smaller, so their Instagram accounts and shared Facebook name is positioned into a single line above the website link. For the reason that I will be adding in more information in the form of typography text beneath the due date of the album to entice the audience to buy the album. As well as conforming to conventions of revealing what particular tracks will be on it.

Draft 1:                                                                       Draft 2:

I also held another focus group, but this time to receive feedback about my second ancillary text, which is the digipack.

According to my focus group session, the audience were unsure with the genre of music the artists were associated to, as a variety had suggested the chosen genre of contemporary R&B, but also:

“The genre could be R&B, but maybe pop?”

“It looks hip-hop”

In addition it was suggested that the typography text of the track-listing should be changed and from my research the style of text has a significant influence on proclaiming the genre of music. Therefore, I have taken my target audience’s thoughts into consideration and changed the typography text to a curly handwriting style rather than the “simplistic” bold looking text.

I went to and searched through the handwriting styles to find one which I thought would give a more personal feel to the digipak. I selected the style called “Elevate” because it was much more bolder than the others and appeared like it was in italics. This make it clearer that the genre is contemporary R&B because the typography used is conventionally like curly handwriting. It then relates to an element of connection to the artist, who’s R&B songs are about personal experiences such as relationships and love. So in my second draft I added the track titles of the album, on the back cover, in the “Elevate” typography style.

                          Draft 1 of the back cover:              Draft 2 of the back cover:

In addition, form my first draft I had noticed that I didn’t complete following/challenging all the conventions of digipacks because I hadn’t included the details on the spine. This is in fact a very significant part to the digipak because if it was positioned on a shelf in the sjop, the audience would only be able to see the spine. This then means that I should have included the typical conventions of the record label associated to the artists in the corner, with the artist’s name/album title in the centre and the trial number of the album in the other corner.

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However, I decided to print out my digipak in order t see if it was correctly formatted and thus conforming to basic conventions. From doing this I had noticed that the inside panel, (high key shot of the artist as they break the forth wall) does not conform to the colour choice of the inside of the digipak. As it’s in fact bold primary colours, none of the shots are with the purple filter as I had laid out in Photoshop. Therefore, to follow my initial design of the front and back cover being purple, which then juxtaposes the bold red/orange inside panels, the shot would have to be changed. This meant that I selected another photo from the photo-shoot pictures I had previously taken to replace the other shot.

As well as, I noticed the central background to where the actual CD disc is located in the digipak is in fact upside down. As a result, I rotated the image, so it is the right way up for when the audience is looking at the background image behind the disc.

Draft 1:                                                                    Draft 2:

DIGIPAK draft 4 copy

Draft 3:

For my third draft of my ancillary text, I had incorporated all the improvements made from draft 1 to draft 2, this including:

  • Superimposing the individual images of the artists on the front cover. This adds an element of appeal to the audience, as it isn’t just appearing basic to them; the pictures overlap and connote a sense of connection between the artists.
  • Adding conventional elements of digipaks such as the features on the spine.
  • Having the track titles listed on the digipack’s back cover and in an effective font style.
  • Additional edit features of glitter and sparkles within the inside of the digipak to just make it seem more encapsulating for the audience; the effects simply enhance the close up shot of the individual artists.

Also in my third draft, I had colour corrected the images with the graffiti wall to make these backgrounds more vibrant and eye-catching to the audience. I had also changed the picture of the first inside panel so that it relates the colour scheme and adds a sense of coherence.

Overall, holding a focus group was extremely effective for me because it enabled me to make a few adjustments to my ancillary texts. As otherwise, the audience’s suggestions for improvements they had picked up on would have gone unnoticed.

The design of conventions for my ancillary texts:

Ancillary text 1 (magazine advert):

  • The main image, relating to the album is the front cover art work extending to fill a majority of the magazine advert page, as noted from my research into conventions.
  • Name of the artist is positioned at the top of the magazine advert in large, bold black font with the name of the album directly underneath it. This is in the same typography font style of the digipack as described in more detail later in this post.
  • Release date is shown through the capitalised “New Album Out Now”.
  • The persuasive language element for how the album contains the “top track…” is used to entice the audience to purchase the album to hear more from the artists.
  • Website/social media information of the artists including Facebook, Instagram icons as well as their shared website link referred to in a centre aligned format.
  • The stores/online places where the CD is able to be purchased is shown through the logos of HMV, iTunes, and Spotify Music positioned in the right hand corner.

Ancillary text 2 (digipak):

I have utilised particular conventions such as conforming to:

The front cover:

  • The main image is of the artists both breaking the forth wall as they look directly into the camera.
  • Featuring the artist’s name in large black font at the top of the front cover. This will introduce the audience to the new upcoming contemporary R&B artists.
  • The album title although in bold font, it will be slightly smaller beneath the first image. Still a main convention which will captivate the audience.

The reasons behind my choice of typography text:

I wanted to utilise the element of synergy by including the same bold simple style as in the music video. I like the bold Sans Serif font type for the artist’s names because the simplistic nature of the text reflects the characteristics of the artists themselves. In addition I noted that this was in fact a convention of digipacks to use the style of the typography text to represent the artist.

But then as an element of contrast, I chose to have the Serif font style for the album title because I would also like to challenge the stereotypes of femininity. As typically the curly style is associated to represent the stereotypes of women being “girly”. However, I have chosen to still use this style because the image of the artists directly beneath the text juxtapose the idea. For the reason that the artists break the forth wall, depicting a powerful stance which demonstrates how the artists are in fact strong females and subvert the typical representation of the typography.

The back cover:

  • Track listing is center aligned between the simple image of the back of the artists standing facing the other way.
  • Bar-code in the bottom right hand corner, as it will be a less noticable feature on the back cover and one of the main conventions.
  • Copyright information will be center aligned at the bottom, in small black font.
  • Record label logo relating to the artists is in the left hand corner so the audience are are of who the band are connected with.

The extra panel:

  • The specific colour scheme of purple is continued throughout the digipak; representing a similar theme as the extra panel is a simple image of the two artists with an addition of a purple filter.

The inside panels:

  • On each panel is a close up shot of the individual artist with the background of the images being a colourful graffiti wall.

The CD:

  • Behind the transparent disc holder artwork can be seen, which reinforces the colour theme of a graffiti style.

The spine:

  • The record company logo is on the corner of the spine to inform the audience of who the artist is associated to.
  • The artist name and album title in the same font of that which is written on the front cover of the digipak. This is positioned on the centre of the spine as this is the central point of focus for the consumer who would observe this if the digipack was on the shelf.
  • The serial number so the digipack is able to be distinguished compared to other copies of the album.

My planning documents:

After having made a mind-map exploring my initial ideas for my music video, I made a mood board, as displayed below. This was created because through the use of colour, imagery and the photography style, I was given me an overall feel to how my music video will appear. As through these selected illustrations, my diverse concepts and thoughts are best displayed.

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I created a storyboard as this will be used as a foundation for my music video because it is almost like a draft copy of a visual representation of my video. My ideas can then be conveyed through sketches of the artists, the actions they complete, various props used, and the staging of events through a sequence. I can essentially illustrate my ideas before I actually begin shooting the music video, my storyboard can be viewed below:


storyboard 1

storyboard 2

sotryboard 3


storyboard 5

storyboard 6

storyboard 7

storyboard 8

I also made a script for my music video because I could then give directions to the artists performing, so they would then be able to know exactly what they are doing. This will make my time filming more efficient because I will be able to keep on my time management schedule for when recording the footage. As I would follow the script accordingly, in order to know what exactly I need to film in each scene/location for my music video.


Through the creation of a shot list, the time actually filming, as well as editing will become more efficient and thus keeping me organised. For the reason that shot lists are usually used by someone who assists the director whilst filming because they can keep track through the log of particular shots needed to be recorded on set.

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I also had created an animatic for my music video because it adds to the establishment of the visuals, through the way in which I could watch the flow and momentum of the particular shots I want to include in my music video. My animatic can be viewed below:

Plus, creating planning documents for my ancillary texts was beneficial because I took the measurements of the documents into consideration as well as drawing my ideas together for how I wanted it to look like. So then when I actually make the ancillary texts in Photoshop, it will be easier to use my drawings as a guideline and way of comparing my initial design to what I am producing.


Ancillary text 1:


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Ancillary text 2:


My music video initial ideas include those described below in my mind map I had created. This visual style/format was chosen because mind maps enable me to explore my thoughts in a way where I can link ideas together.

media initial ideas

I have also decided on various locations to include in my music video such as this described below with various test shots:


  • Scene in Hyde park with various groups of people sitting together and getting involved in the song.


  • Scene on the train with the artists standing up and getting off the train; clear with the train stop displayed.


  • Scene in Trafalgar Square on Nelson’s Column statue with a low angle of the artists standing looking down at the camera.
  • Scene in leciester square with the dancers for the brief montage of the song at the start.


  • Scene in Camden Town with the graffiti walls and street art to get an urban feel for the rap verse of the song.
  • Scene in Piccadilly Circus with the billboard lights and the artists walking in front of it.

In addition, I researched top filming locations in London and discovered two absolutely amazing places including this Leake Street Graffiti Tunnel, which appears as displayed below. I like my music video to have a scene, particularly for the rap verse of the song, set in this tunnel which is near the London Waterloo train station. This is because from my research I have noted a convention of the rap music industry is involving the graffiti style to the music video. For me the best way to conform to the convention is to have, arguably referred to as the best of London’s street art, as the background of some shots.


Plus whilst searching on the internet I found another location in the Kings Cross tube station, which is known as the light tunnel. I instantly had ideas for my music video containing a scene set in there because of the amazing light effect with colours of pink, purple and even blue.

Kings Cross Light Tunnel

Analysis of My Target Audience Survey Results:

I received feedback from my target audience through a questionnaire I had created on SurveyMonkey; which is web-based, so it enabled me to distribute a link to my survey over various social media platforms. This way I collected over 100 responses from referencing the link and asking people I know on Snap-chat and Whats-app, as well as emailing the survey around school.

The link to my survey:

As the survey contains 10 questions, with my chosen music genre of contemporary R&B in mind, I could obtain results form my target audience about their thoughts and ideas to a music video being created in this genre. Therefore, I will use this to help me develop a best possible version of my music video. As I can follow the expectations of the audience, to create an appealing music video for my target audience; which through the survey I gained an understanding of my target audience profile.

But I won’t be able to conform to all of the audience’s expectations as I want to challenge particular ideas as described below.

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For my very first question, I simply asked if the audience member was male or female. This is because arguably each gender have different perspectives on particular ideas and the differences can vary.

I want to acknowledge which gender my music video will be aimed at, since the largest percentage of those who completed the survey was in fact female with 64% in comparison to only 36% of respondents were male. So because the respondents were mainly female, I can note how the responses from this survey are mainly based on the opinions of the female gender. Although I did attempt in receiving equal responses for both genders because my results will then be fair.

But as I have received more female responses, it is still beneficial to me because the music artists themselves are female and I will be representing their sense of female empowerment and aspect of feminism in the music video.I believe the female audience will most likely listen to the song and watch the music video, over male audiences because they can relate to these ideas conveyed.

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Then my second closed question demonstrates how my target audience is teens to young adults because it’s a close call between the age range of 13-16 year olds, with the age range of 17-21. As 45% of respondents were between the age of 13-16 in comparison to a slightly higher amount of 49% for the next age range.

My primary target audience is thus young adults because the majority was in the age bracket of 17-21. This is good because my target audience are stereo typically known as the age where they consume the media type of a music videos on social media platforms such as YouTube. Teenagers/young adults can watch music videos on YouTube, which is in fact the platform I will be releasing my video as it can then be shared by various people globally, since it is a widely used medium.

I had also received answers from all age categories I had set out which include the five categories of “under 12” years old with one response, “21-25” age range with two responses and “25+” with three responses. I created the different age categories because age is one factor that can reason for why people have different tastes in music styles. Furthermore, I wanted to collect opinions from a wider audience.

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This question was more in general for music videos, as the audience could select their own preference of how much they like a video to follow a narrative. Surprisingly these results weren’t what I imagined, because the majority is 58% who like the music video to follow a slight narrative, in terms of wanting the music video to contain parts of a story-line.

Only 9% of respondents wanted a hybrid music video to be centred around a narrative, in comparison to a much higher amount of 27% for the video to not follow a narrative at all. Therefore, I will take the respondents thoughts into consideration when creating my music video.

But what had interested me the most was how some had even selected the “Other” category and entered their own personal thoughts such as:

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This then gave me an insight to how my target audience would like the music video to contain a narrative style, but “not too much of a story” as the audience evidently reveal their interest rates will decrease. One intention behind creating music videos is to captivate the audience and I wish to to exactly this. Therefore, I will consider  applying the respondents ideas for my music video to contain scenes which will follow a narrative up to a certain extent.


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As the producer, it is extremely important to know what particular elements the audience dislike in a music video as I can then work to produce an appealing video for the audience to consume.

The feature scoring the most was a complex story-line, as it was ranked by 48% of the respondents. This follows on from the previous question in my survey because the audience want the music video to follow a slight narrative. Furthermore, meaning that they would be confused when watching the video if it had like a 90% rating in the hybrid style, as the story would then be considered as “complex” by most.

I could identify that having unique ideas is just as important as the fact that the music video must be captivating for the audience; 24% would simply not like the video to have an aspect of un-originality. This is because the audience feel as though they are essentially watching copies of other music videos which share similar ideas.

My results also revealed 3% of the respondents had added in their own beliefs about the least appealing element of a music video:

“If the video gets because it repeats the same thing.”

“Having no story-line.”

This exhibits how the audience rely on a music video’s ability to stand out from other in the sense of uncovering unique aspects such as the cinematography in particular to not appear repetitive. This is the case for videos that seem to hardly have “no story-line” and simply repeat shots to fill the duration of the video. So I will definitely take the respondents comments into consideration because I want to acknowledge the importance of conforming to their expectations in order to create an appealing product.


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For this question, I received a fairly balanced set of results; in which the majority of respondents (34%) like the motif of friendship being integral to the music video. I am happy with this response because I originally had the idea to create the music video based on this theme because of the lyrical content conveying friendship.

But also, how it is still relatively high in 29% of the audience liking a music video to uncover the theme featuring a “teenage experience”, means that some would like to see a representation of their late teenage years, as in fact the target audience is in the age range of 17-21. This means they can then personal connect to the meaning of the song which is conveyed through the music video.

Therefore, I will definitely consider combining these two themes in my music video because not only do they relate most to the lyrical content, as well as conforming to audience’s expectation of these motifs in a video.

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Receiving answers for this question will help me produce a text, which will suit the needs and expectations of the audiences as I will shape my music video ideas around how the audience most likely want the video to relate to the lyrics. For the majority, about 60% of respondents said that it is necessary to an extent for the video to relate to the lyrics.

Therefore, in some sense I will conform to their expectation but in other ways I will subvert. For the reason that the least amount of respondents being just 13% believe it is not important at all for the visuals to relate to the lyrics. I had thought that the audience would have not found it important at all for the music video to relate to the lyrics and thus liked a disjuncture type of music video. As the abstract imagery creates many new meanings and I quite like music videos that relate in small ways to the lyrics whilst revealing different ideas.

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I had also used my survey to ask open questions so that the audience could share more of their thoughts to music videos, than a simple one word answer from the previous multiple choice questions.

However, with my open style questions, I costumed it so that it was possible for the respondent to skip. This was because I didn’t particularly need to know about what they expect in a music video because I have already done research of the conventions. But I  have sufficient results despite 50 respondents skipping the question, to receive enough sample answers to gain the impression of my target audience’s expectation through the repetition of the comments such as:

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Several of the comments had indicated that my target audience like to see a contemporary R&B music video uncovering people dancing, having fun together with an atmospheric and lively feel. In my opinion I like these ideas and will conform to their expectations, as well as following one particular comment of “the music punctuating or emphasising each scene”. This simply means to use the visual to a amplify the lyrical content; I was deciding on using that style for my music video. So it’s good to know that some of my target audience would like to see it too.

Particular elements I noticed and what I like:

“Lots of scenes of the singer”

“To see the artist for all the music video”

“The artist not other people acting for them”

“De-saturated filters, slow progressive story, depressed/relaxed kind of setting”

I am very happy with the feedback because the comments in the open question revealed how people knew the contemporary R&B music genre. I particularly liked the comments which relate to the cinematography of the music video. This is because I have acknowledged how the audience like close up shots of the music artist themselves because some had even said “you don’t always get to see them, so in the video it is the chance to see them”. I want to apply this to my music video as it is a good way for the audience to get to know the artist through the choice of close ups.

In addition, the respondents shared their thoughts which related to the mise-en-scene elements of clothing including wanting “trendy outfits”“wild, different styled clothes” and “street clothing”. Conventions I noticed of music videos was that they offer the audience a representation of the music artist and I believe that giving an original representation is through a unique dress style of the artist.

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Plus I liked the respondents’ comments of wanting the major theme of “Love and Heartbreak” to be uncovered in the music video. I want to expand on this because conventionally the audience would expect a sad “depressing” music video as some had commented on. However, I want to challenge this by showing the music artists’ ability to represent females as having the emotional strength to move on from a past relationship, As will be displaying them being happy, rather than carrying a sense of sadness in the music video.


“Flashy cars”

“Celebrity features”

“Expensive cars and big houses”

“A lot of money being show off”

“I want to see expensive cars and the artist partying”

Elements I have chosen to subvert the audience’s expectation include those mentioned directly above, for the reason that I want to present the artists in natural ways to represent them as real people. This is what I want to achieve more than to give a false image of the artists having “expensive” and “flashy” cars.

I will try to attempt to conform to the expectation of including a big house and potentially celebrity features as these are elements which are rather appealing for the audience.

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Most of my questions were costumed so that I would receive an answer from the respondent, meaning that they couldn’t skip the question. As these questions were significant to me in finding out what exactly the audience expect in the music video. Therefore, knowing the location my target audience expect the contemporary R&B genre to be set in showed 55% being in the street. I want to conform to their expectation because I had also noted this is in fact a convention for the setting of a R&B video to be in the street.

The next highest score was 21% of respondents for wanting the video to be set at a party location and then 12% had selected the setting to be in a park. I want to combine these ideas because I quite like the idea of a music video being a montage of events; the scenes being set in a variety of places.

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My second open question was not entirely necessary because I didn’t need to know my target audience’s favourite contemporary R&B music artist. But I chose to ask the question because I thought it would be helpful to see what music artist’s name appeared the most. The repetition of the name Drake, Tinie Tempah, Chris Brown and Beyonce was most prominent. Which I have understood that overall as there was more male artists mentioned than females, it suggests how arguably male artists are the more established gender in this music genre. However, I want to use my music video to give the impression that female contemporary R&B artists are just as good as the male artists.

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I also gained comments about how the audience still like the older R&B styled artists including Mary J Blige as “she is still well-known today” and Craig David because of the energy and vibe feel to his music videos. Therefore, I believe many artists are influenced slightly by these older styled ones.

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Also the respondent who wrote:

Drake because his lyrics can relate to thousands of people in so many ways”

This comment caught my attention as this is exactly what I am aiming for the lyrical content to convey a message which is in fact relatable for a wide audience. But I also liked the comment:

“Beyonce because she is unique in comparison to other female R&B artists”

As Beyonce was a popular answer, I liked how one respondent had commented on why they liked this female R&B artist, since only a few responses on the open questions gave reasoning to why they liked the particular artist they had mentioned. I agree with this particular comment because for an artist to be successful they must have a sense of difference compared to other artists in that genre of the music industry.

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My final question of my survey allowed me to found out the audience’s thoughts on conventions of the contemporary R&B music genre. This is through the question where I obtained the most results of 53% of respondents for wanting casual clothing to be in the music video. I have decided to conform to this convention because I had also noticed that the music artists in the contemporary R&B genre wear casual clothing rather than a smart outfit. Which my survey had supported the convention of the audience’s expectation of the least amount of only 7% wanting to see smart dress. Therefore, having casual clothing in the music video will also add to the desired relaxed mood of the song.

Furthermore, the profile for my primary target audience is females aged 17-21 believe in the music video containing a hybrid contemporary R&B music video with 50% of it following a narrative. Overall, this survey has helped me to develop my ideas on my planning documents such as my storyboard, due to the feedback being used to make slight adjustments in my ideas. As a result, my ideas for my music video has been shaped through collecting these responses.

Creating my “Portugal 2017” Short Montage:

I had decided to develop my understanding of editing through the use of the editing software called imovie; I began creating a montage of my summer experience this year, through the various recordings I took during the holidays.

Firstly, I opened up imovies on the mac-book and created a new “movie”. The new project appeared with a blank timeline as displayed and anotated by me below; where I could then begin creating the short film.


I imported my first footage clip through clicking on the downward arrow and selecting the footage from my documents. All my footage was stored in the media display; in which I had to drag and drop each individual piece of footage onto the timeline.

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To then insert a title that will appear at the start of the video by overlayering the footage of the Portugese flag, I selected the title label and began to chose a style I wanted to use. My favourite one I came across was the one where the text appears after a series of brief light flashes. For the reason that I wanted the video to directly capture the audience’s attention from the very start.

By double clicking on the display screen, I was able to edit the typography text to read “Portugal 2017” with a new chosen style of Bastonville font type. As well as choosing the colour of the text to be in white so that the title appears in a bold way since it contrasts against the black background. Which I added a fade in from black edit effect through clicking on “Transitions” on the menu bar as this edit is often used to singnify the beginning or end of a video.

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Also by experimenting t=with the range of icons that are presented above the display screen, I came across one that enabled me to change the filter of the selected shot. I decided on the filter called Hard Light because the effect made the footage appear brighter as well as heightening the quality of the footage.

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Then by importing my second clip through the same method of selecting the downward arrow, I began to create a sequence of events which in a way follow on from the previous shot. For instance the establishing shot is in fact a long shot of the Portugese flag that introduces the viewer to the location of the video and then by adding a wipe edit, meant the next dolly shot of the villa I stayed in linked together.

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I also stabilised the footage because the next dolly shot I had taken appeared rather shaky and I wanted to maintain the viewer’s attention on the beautiful scenery and landscape of Portugal, instead of them being distracted by the hand-held camera wobbles.

Plus, using the menu I selected the icon which looked like a timer/scale; this was so that I could adjust the speed of the footage to either make it faster in pace, slower or customise it to my own desires. For this particular shot I had filmed during a journey in a car, the footage already seemed in quite a fast pace, therefore, I had no need to adjust the speed. But for the first shot of the flag blowing in the wind, I wanted to customise the speed of the shot so that it was in slow motion, as the original clip was a fast take. Subsequently, I wanted to extend the length of the shot to make the flag blow in the wind, almost seeming in slow motion. From the below screenshot, the iconic symbol of a turtle represents the slow speed of the opening shot in comparison to the iconic symbol of a rabbit on the next shot to represent it’s fast pace nature.



In the timeline I could hover over the footage and at the edge of each clip I could crop it to a chosen length by using/dragging the crop arrow which appeared vertically across the timeline. Then afterwards I decided to rearrange the order of the clips displayed in the sequence by holding onto the specific one with the mouse and dropping it further along the timeline.

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I had also decided to import my favourite photos I had taken during my holiday in Portugal. To include them in my video I had plug in my phone to the mac-book and select several of the images I wanted to use. This was quite simple because I could then click on them when they appeared in the My Media section display, to drag and drop them onto the video timeline. But because it would like rather weird for there to be video footage and then a random picture, I used the swap transition between the pictures uploaded. As displayed above, resulting in the video seeming to flow between the various shots.

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I had also wanted to change the filter of the footage to create more of an effect rather than the plain and simple look without a filter. Therefore I clicked on the three overlapping circles icon, which meant I could then select a filter from a wide variety. I chose Western for this particular two-shot of me and my friend because I thought that the beige and pastel tone almost connected the previous shot of the sunset sky. This then adds a sense of continuity through the colour for the short montage video.

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Then as I had continued to add in footage and cropping to meet my desired outcome, I began to listen through the variety of free audio samples given on iMovie. I came across many I had liked, in particular the soundtrack music of Travel because it suited the style of the video as it is bout my holiday in Portugal. I dragged and dropped the audio onto the timeline underneath the timeline of footage. I had to do this several times in order for the soundtrack to be playing throughout the whole of the video as it one audio was very short in duration length. However, I had to ensure that the soundtrack blended well together by simply overlapping it, as well as selecting the part of the song it had finished on with the same sounds of the following one.

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Finally, I hovered over the soundtrack in the timeline section and dragged down the pointer so that the song would fade out in time with the video drawing to an end. This was because otherwise the audio would just have a straight cut and being quite sudden/dramatic for the audience. I didn’t want to create this effect, so I faded the soundtrack. Also, I added in the fade to black edit transition, which I think works well with the audio fading out, as well as signifying the end to the video.

Plus, I inserted the final title which reads The End by dragging the same styled typography onto the last shot. By double clicking on it I could change the font type, size and position so that it was centre framed.

Overall, I liked using the software called iMovie because it is rather simple and I could begin to experiment with a variety of features that is only available on it.